Mobile version

Barystatic and manometric sea level changes from satellite geodesy

Barystatic and manometric sea level changes represent the mass component of sea level changes at global and regional scales respectively. Barystatic and manometric sea level changes are estimated here using two different approaches:

  • satellite gravimetry measurements from the GRACE and GRACE-FO missions
  • a sea level budget approach combining satellite altimetry with in-situ measurements of the seawater temperature and salinity.

The satellite gravimetry solutions were calculated using an ensemble approach updated from Blazquez et al., (2018) (GRACE ensemble L3 V2.0 : webpage in development), allowing the estimation of uncertainties associated with processing and post-processing choices. The sea level budget approach was adapted from Barnoud et al., (2023).

Barystatic sea level changes

Barystatic sea level changes are due to freshwater exchanges with the continents, including ice mass changes from Greenland, Antarctica and continental glaciers, as well as freshwater fluxes from continental areas (i.e. large river basins such as the Amazon). Here, barystatic sea level changes estimated with satellite gravimetry are compared with the sea level budget approach, showing remarkable consistency (Figure 1). Barystatic sea level changes from satellite gravimetry are found to be highly sensitive to post-processing corrections, such as the geocenter and glacial isostatic adjustment, some models providing a better fit than others with the sea level budget approach.

Manometric sea level changes

Manometric sea level changes are due to several processes, including the atmosphere - ocean circulation, sea level fingerprints and the global water cycle. Climate modes, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or Southern Annular Mode, also significantly influence manometric sea level changes (e.g. Pfeffer et al., 2022).

The trends in manometric sea level changes and their uncertainties are compared for the satellite gravimetry and sea level budget approaches (Figure 2). Trends are in good agreement over the Pacific, South Atlantic and South Indian oceans. The main differences are observed in the North Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, as well as in turbulent ocean areas, such as the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio and Southern Ocean, which may be explained by uncertainties in satellite gravimetry (North Atlantic and North Indian) and sea level budget (turbulent areas) approaches.

Barystatic and manometric products

In total, 4 products are distributed including:

  • Barystatic sea level changes from satellite gravimetry with uncertainties at 1-sigma: monthly time series from April 2002 to September 2023
  • Manometric sea level changes from satellite gravimetry with uncertainties at 1-sigma: monthly grids with 1 degree spacing from April 2002 to September 2023
  • Barystatic sea level changes from sea level budget with uncertainties at 1-sigma: monthly time series from January 1993 to December 2020
  • Manometric sea level changes from sea level budget with uncertainties at 1-sigma: monthly grids with 1 degree spacing from January 1993 to December 2020

DOI and metadata

The satellite gravimetry products are referenced with the DOI: 
More metadata: 

The sea level budget products are referenced with the DOI: 
More metadata: 

Product access and condition of access

The product (NetCDF file) can be downloaded in open acces on the https server or via the non authenticated  FTP download (if the FTP protocol is not supported by your browsers, see this note)

The product is available free of charge for any project or study, and delivered as stated in the licence agreement.


If you use the data, please cite: "The barystatic and manometric products from satellite gravimetry and sea level budget approaches (DOI: 10.24400/527896/a01-2023.011 version XX and 10.24400/527896/a01-2023.012 version XX) were produced by Magellium/LEGOS and distributed by AVISO+ ( with support from Copernicus Marine Service. "


For any technical issues or additional information related to the barystatic and manometric products, users are advised to contact Julia Pfeffer: julia.pfeffer(at)


This work is supported by the Copernicus Marine Service in the framework of the WAMBOR (WAter Mass Balance in Ocean Reanalyses) project:
Copernicus Marine Service is implemented by Mercator Ocean International in the framework of a delegation agreement with the European Union.

Barystatic and manometric product versions, documentation and access

Name Version Publication date Input Data Temporal coverage DOI Product user manual Product access
Barystatic and manometric from satellite gravimetry 2.0 July
GRACE L3 CNES V1.6 updated from Blazquez et al., (2018)  April 2002-
August 2022
10.24400/527896/a01-2023.011 PUM v2.0 open access non authenticated ftp
4.0 July
GRACE ensemble L3 v2.0 updated from Blazquez et al., (2018) April 2002 - September 2023 PUM v4.0
Barystatic and manometric from sea level budget 2.0 July
Satellite altimetry gridded sea level anomalies from C3S (Legeais et al., 2021)

Temperature and salinity grids from EN4 (Good et al., 2013), IAP  (Cheng et al., 2017, 2020) and Ishii et al., (2017).
January 1993 - December 2020 10.24400/527896/a01-2023.012 PUM v2.0

Main references

  • Blazquez, A., Meyssignac, B., Lemoine, J.-M., Berthier, E., Ribes, A., Cazenave, A. (2018). Exploring the uncertainty in GRACE estimates of the mass redistributions at the Earth surface: implications for the global water and sea level budgets, Geophysical Journal International, 215 (1), 415–430,
  • Barnoud, A., Pfeffer, J., Cazenave, A., Fraudeau, R., Rousseau, V., and Ablain, M. (2023). Revisiting the global mean ocean mass budget over 2005–2020, Ocean Sci., 19, 321–334, 

Other references

  • Cheng, L., Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J., Boyer, T., Abraham, J., and Zhu, J. (2017). Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015, Science Advances, 3, 
  • Cheng, L., Trenberth, K. E., Gruber, N., Abraham, J. P., Fasullo, J. T., Li, G., Mann, M. E., Zhao, X., and Zhu, J., (2020). Improved Estimates of Changes in Upper Ocean Salinity and the Hydrological Cycle, Journal of Climate, 33, 10 357–10 381,
  • Good, S. A., Martin, M. J., and Rayner, N. A. (2013). EN4: Quality controlled ocean temperature and salinity profiles and monthly objective analyses with uncertainty estimates, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, 6704–6716,
  • Ishii, M., Fukuda, Y., Hirahara, S., Yasui, S., Suzuki, T., and Sato, K. (2017). Accuracy of Global Upper Ocean Heat Content Estimation Expected from Present Observational Data Sets, SOLA, 13, 163–167, 
  • Legeais, J.-F., Meyssignac, B., Faugère, Y., Guerou, A., Ablain, M., Pujol, M.-I., Dufau, C., and Dibarboure, G., (2021). Copernicus sea level space observations: a basis for assessing mitigation and developing adaptation strategies to sea level rises, Front. Mar. Sci., 8, 704721, 
  • Pfeffer, J., Cazenave, A. & Barnoud, A. (2022). Analysis of the interannual variability in satellite gravity solutions: detection of climate modes fingerprints in water mass displacements across continents and oceans. Clim Dyn 58, 1065–1084. 
Rss feedsContactPartnersFAQLexiconLegal noticePersonal Data Protection PolicyMobile
You must enable cookies in your browser preferences to save the modifications
You are using an older version of Internet Explorer, please update to take full advantage of Aviso+ features

Customize the home page

View all widgets
Reduce display
Public profile
User profile

Select/Deselect widgets

Discover AVISO+

Customizable home, reading tools, products search guide, etc.. Discover step by step the features of the new site AVISO+.

Customizable homepage

This home page is composed of blocks called "widgets".

Rearrange the blocks with a "Click & Drop".

Hide a widget with the cross at the top right. Reset or add a widget with the "wrench" icon. The "User" and "Public" profiles offer a predefined organization.

All the modifications are automatically saved as cookies on your machine so as to enable you to have your own specific AVISO+.

Reading tools

Ease your reading by choosing the page background colour (black/white) and/or by modifying the font size.

Browsing menu and breadcrum trail

To ease your browsing through AVISO+, you can use at any time the main banner items with the interactive submenus or use the browsing menu on the left side of the screen (it is open by default). For more readiness of the page contents, you can fold and unfold the browsing menu by clicking on the tab. At any time you can know where you are thanks to the browsing menu or the breadcrum at the top of the page.

Products search guide

The first submenu of the "Data" banner item leads you to a new search form enabling you to find quickier the product that suits your needs. The list of results is updated according to your selection criteria.

AVISO+ Multimedia

The first submenu of the "Multimedia" banner item leads you to AVISO+ collections of images and videos linked to altimetry and its applications. Have a nice visit!