Mobile version

El Niño played hide and seek in 2014

Image of the Month - January 2015

Temperature anomalies (color scale) and absolute (contours) sections averaged over 2°S-2°N in the Tropical Pacific, for February, May, July and December 2014. The situation showed a temperature increase near the American coasts in May, but this positive anomaly faded by July. In December, a very weak El Niño is visible at Christmas. (temperatures from Guinehut et al. / Mulet et al. Credits CLS/MyOcean)

In February - March 2014 and up to May, an El Niño was announced, possibly a strong one. All conditions seems similar to 1997, and thus forecasts were close to that episode. However, sea surface temperature was high all over Tropical Pacific, with few or no temperature gradient. However atmosphere answers to surface temperature gradients by pressure gradients, i.e.: winds. So, no winds, no "southern oscillation", and ENSO disappeared. This illustrates that all observations are necessary to be taken into account in climate forecasts such as ENSO's, on the Ocean surface, the atmosphere, but also in depth.

Altimetry, combined with others space techniques, but also with in situ arrays like TAO and Argo enables to reconstruct the whole ocean in 3 dimensions, as done for the Global Ocean Observation-based Product "Armor3D" (Guinehut et al. / Mulet et al).

See also:

Websites on this subject:


(for the data used in the sections)

  • Guinehut S., A.-L. Dhomps, G. Larnicol et P.-Y. Le Traon (2012). High resolution 3-D temperature and salinity fields derived from in situ and satellite observations. Ocean Sci., 8(5):845–857.
  • Mulet S., M.-H. Rio, A. Mignot, S. Guinehut & R. Morrow (2012). A new estimate of the global 3D geostrophic ocean circulation based on satellite data and in-situ measurements. Deep Sea Research Part II : Topical Studies in Oceanography, 77–80(0):70–81.
Rss feedsContactPartnersFAQLexiconLegal noticePersonal Data Protection PolicyMobile
You must enable cookies in your browser preferences to save the modifications
You are using an older version of Internet Explorer, please update to take full advantage of Aviso+ features

Customize the home page

View all widgets
Reduce display
Public profile
User profile

Select/Deselect widgets

Discover AVISO+

Customizable home, reading tools, products search guide, etc.. Discover step by step the features of the new site AVISO+.

Customizable homepage

This home page is composed of blocks called "widgets".

Rearrange the blocks with a "Click & Drop".

Hide a widget with the cross at the top right. Reset or add a widget with the "wrench" icon. The "User" and "Public" profiles offer a predefined organization.

All the modifications are automatically saved as cookies on your machine so as to enable you to have your own specific AVISO+.

Reading tools

Ease your reading by choosing the page background colour (black/white) and/or by modifying the font size.

Browsing menu and breadcrum trail

To ease your browsing through AVISO+, you can use at any time the main banner items with the interactive submenus or use the browsing menu on the left side of the screen (it is open by default). For more readiness of the page contents, you can fold and unfold the browsing menu by clicking on the tab. At any time you can know where you are thanks to the browsing menu or the breadcrum at the top of the page.

Products search guide

The first submenu of the "Data" banner item leads you to a new search form enabling you to find quickier the product that suits your needs. The list of results is updated according to your selection criteria.

AVISO+ Multimedia

The first submenu of the "Multimedia" banner item leads you to AVISO+ collections of images and videos linked to altimetry and its applications. Have a nice visit!