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Scientific Publications

Below are references linked to the different data products distributed by Aviso.

Aviso+ Handbooks

Wave/Wind CFOSAT products Handbooks:

SSALTO/Duacs Handbooks:

Sargassum detection products

Along-track Level-2+ products:

Coastal and Hydrological products:

 Mean Sea Surface Handbook:

 Multivariate Inversion of Ocean Surface Topography, Internal Tide Model (MIOST-IT) :

O/I/GDR products:

Auxiliary product references

Mean Sea Surface


  • Schaeffer, P., Pujol, M.-I., Faugere, Y., Picot, N., Guillot, A. 2016: New Mean Sea Surface CNES_CLS 2015 focusing on the use of geodetic missions of CryoSat-2 and Jason-1. Living Planet Symposium
  • Schaeffer P., Y. Faugere, J. F. Legeais, A. Ollivier, T. Guinle, N. Picot (2012), The CNES CLS11 Global Mean Sea Surface Computed from 16 Years of Satellite Altimeter Data. Marine Geodesy, 2012, Special Issue, Jason-2, Vol.35.
  • Hernandez, F., M.-H. Calvez, J. Dorandeu, Y. Faugère, F. Mertz, and P. Schaeffer, 2000: Surface Moyenne Océanique: Support scientifique à la mission altimétrique Jason-1, et à une mission micro-satellite altimétrique. Contrat Ssalto 2945 - Lot 2 - A.1. Rapport d'avancement. Rapport n° CLS/DOS/NT/00.313, édité par CLS, Ramonville St Agne. pp. 40.
  • Hernandez, F., and P. Schaeffer, 2000: Altimetric Mean Sea Surfaces and Gravity Anomaly maps inter-comparisons. Rapport n° AVI-NT-011-5242-CLS, ed. CLS, Ramonville St Agne. pp. 48.

Mean dynamic topography


  • Rio, M.-H., S. Mulet, and N. Picot (2014), Beyond GOCE for the ocean circulation estimate: Synergetic use of altimetry, gravimetry, and in situ data provides new insight into geostrophic and Ekman currents, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061773.
  • Rio, M-H, S. Mulet, N. Picot (2013): New global Mean Dynamic Topography from a GOCE geoid model, altimeter measurements and oceanographic in-situ data. Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium, Edinburg, September 2013.
  • Mulet et al, (2013): New global Mean Dynamic Topography from a GOCE geoid model, altimeter measurements and oceanographic in-situ data (pdf), OSTST meeting, Boulder, 2013.


  • Rio, M. H., S. Guinehut, and G. Larnicol (2011), New CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry, and in situ measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C07018, doi:10.1029/2010JC006505. [JGR link]
  • Rio M.H., Faugere Y., Schaeffer P., Moreaux G., Bourgogne S., Lemoine J.M., Bronner  E. , Picot N., The New CNES‐CLS09 global Mean Dynamic Topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry and in‐situ measurements. Oral presentation ESA's Living Planet Symposium, June 2010 (pdf).
  • Rio, M-H, P. Schaeffer, G. Moreaux, J-M Lemoine, E. Bronner (2009) : A new Mean Dynamic Topography computed over the global ocean from GRACE data, altimetry and in-situ measurements . Poster communication at OceanObs09 symposium, 21-25 September 2009, Venice (pdf). 


  • Hernandez, F., P.-Y. Le Traon, and R. Morrow, Mapping mesoscale variability of the Azores Current using TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1 altimetry, together with hydrographic and Lagrangian measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 24995-25006, 1995.
  • Le Traon, P.-Y. and F. Hernandez, Mapping the oceanic mesoscale circulation: validation of satellite altimetry using surface drifters, J. Atmos. and Ocean. Techn., 9, 687-698, 1992.
  • Rio, M.-H., Combinaison de données in situ, altimétriques et gravimétriques pour l'estimation d'une topographie dynamique moyenne globale, Ed. CLS. PhD Thesis, University Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III, France), 260pp, 2003.
  • Rio, M.-H. and F. Hernandez, High frequency response of wind-driven currents measured by drifting buoys and altimetry over the world ocean,  J. Geophys. Res., 108, 39-1, 2003.


  • Rio M.-H., F. Hernandez, A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12032, 2004.
  • Rio, M.-H., Schaeffer, P., Lemoine, J.-M., Hernandez, F., Estimation of the ocean Mean Dynamic Topography through the combination of altimetric data, in-situ measurements and GRACE geoid: From global to regional studies, Proceedings of the GOCINA international workshop, Luxembourg, 2005.


  • SMDT-MED-2014 (This MDT is not delivered by Aviso but used in the Duacs 2014 (v15.0) version. See the SOCIB website for more information and to download the product): Rio, M.-H., Pascual, A., Poulain, P.-M., Menna, M., Barceló, B., and Tintoré, J. (2014): Computation of a new Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean Sea from model outputs, altimeter measurements and oceanographic in-situ data, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 11, 655-692, doi:10.5194/osd-11-655-2014.
  • Rio M.H., P.M. Poulain and al. "A Mean Dynamic Topography of the Mediterranean Sea computed from altimetric data, in-situ measurements and a general circulation model." Journal of Marine Systems 65: 484-508 2007.
  • Rio M.H., Poulain P-M, Pascal A., Mauri E., Larnicol G., Santoleri R., A mean dynamic topography of the Mediterranean Sea computer from altimeter data, in situ measurements and a general circulation model, J. Mar. Sys., 2005.

Le Grand inverse model

  • Le Grand, P., Impact of the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission on ocean circulation estimates. Volume fluxes in a climatological inverse model of the Atlantic,  J. Geophys. Res., 106, 19597-19610, 2001.
  • Le Grand, P., H. Mercier, and T. Reynaud, Combining T/P altimetric data with hydrographic data to estimate the mean dynamic topography of the North Atlantic and improve the geoid, Annales Geophysicae, 16, 638-650, 1998.
  • Le Grand, P., E. J. O. Schrama, and J. Tournadre, An inverse estimate of the dynamic topography of the ocean, Geophys. Res. Let. 30, 1062, 2003.

Levitus Climatology

  • Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T. P. Boyer, World ocean atlas 1994 volume 3 : Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp, 1994.
  • Levitus, S. and T. P. Boyer, World ocean atlas 1994 volume 4 : Temperature, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp, 1994.

OCCAM model

  • Killworth, P. D., OCCAM: the Ocean Circulation and Climate Advanced Modelling Project, International WOCE Newsletter, 18, 20-22, 1995.
  • Killworth, P. D., C. Dieterich, C. Le Provost, A. Oschlies, and J. Willebrand, Assimilation of altimetric data and mean sea surface height into an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic, Progr. in Oceanography, 48, 313-335, 2001.
  • Fox, A. D., K. Haines, B. A. de Cuevas, and D. J. Webb, Altimeter assimilation in the OCCAM global model. Part I & II: A twin experiment & TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1 assimilation, J. Mar. Sys., 26, 303-323 & 323-347, 2000.
  • Troccoli, A. and K. Haines, Use of the Temperature-Salinity relation in data assimilation context, J. Atmos. and Ocean. Tech., 16, 2011-2025, 1999.


Tide model


  • Lyard F., L. Carrere, M. Cancet, A. Guillot, N. Picot: FES2014, a new finite elements tidal model for global ocean, in preparation, to be submitted to Ocean Dynamics in 2016.
  • Carrere L., F. Lyard, M. Cancet, A. Guillot, N. Picot: FES 2014, a new tidal model - Validation results and perspectives for improvements, presentation to ESA Living Planet Conference, Prague 2016.


  • Carrère L., F. Lyard, M. Cancet, A. Guillot, L. Roblou, FES2012: A new global tidal model taking taking advantage of nearly 20 years of altimetry, Proceedings of meeting "20 Years of Altimetry", Venice 2012.


  • Lyard, F., F. Lefèvre, T. Letellier and O. Francis. Modelling the global ocean tides: a modern insight from FES2004, Ocean Dynamics, 56, 394-415, 2006.


  • Le Provost, C., M.L. Genco, F. Lyard, P. Vincent, and P. Canceil, Spectroscopy of the world ocean tides from a finite element hydrodynamic model, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,777-24,797, 1994.
  • Le Provost, C., F. Lyard, J.M. Molines, M.L. Genco, and F. Rabilloud, A hydrodynamic ocean tide model improved by assimilating a satellite altimeter-derived data set, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5513-5529, 1998.
  • Le Provost, C., and P. Vincent, Some tests of precision for a finite element model of ocean tides, J. Comput. Phys., 65, 273-291, 1986.
  • Lefèvre, F., F.H. Lyard, and C. Le Provost, FES98: a new global tide finite element solution independent of altimetry, Geophys. Res. Let., 27 (17), 2717-2720, 2000.
  • Lefèvre, F., F. Lyard, C. Le Provost, and E.J.O. Schrama, FES99 : a tide finite element solution assimilating tide gauge and altimetric information, J. Atm. Oceano. Tech., 19 (9), 1345-1356, 2002.


Atmospheric corrections

Dynamic Atmospheric correction 

  • Carrère L. et al., Poster presentation at OSTST 2011: Improving the dynamic atmospheric correction for mean sea level and operational applications of atimetry (pdf
  • Carrère, L., Etude et modélisation de la réponse haute fréquence de l'océan global aux forçages météorologiques, PhD Thesis, University Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III, France).
  • Carrère, L. and Lyard F., Modelling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations, Geophys. Res. Let., 30(6), pp 1275, 2003.
  • Dorandeu, J. and P. Y. Le Traon, Effects of Global Mean Atmospheric Pressure Variations on Mean Sea Level Changes from TOPEX/Poseidon, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 16, 1279-1283, 1999.
  • Lynch, D.R. and Gray W.G, A wave equation model for finite element tidal computations, Computers and Fluids, 7, pp 207-228, 1979.
  • Pascual, A., M. Marcos, and D. Gomis (2008), Comparing the sea level response to pressure and wind forcing of two barotropic models: Validation with tide gauge and altimetry data, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07011, doi:10.1029/2007JC004459.

Corrections & models references

  • Guérou et al., OSTST 2022: CNES/Aviso New GMSL L2P21 record10.24400/527896/a03-2022.3408
  • Guérou, A., Meyssignac, B., Prandi, P., Ablain, M., Ribes, A., and Bignalet-Cazalet, F.: Current observed global mean sea level rise and acceleration estimated from satellite altimetry and the associated measurement uncertainty, Ocean Sci., 19, 431–451,, 2023.
  • Prandi P, Meyssignac B, Ablain M, Spada G, Ribes A, Benveniste J (2021). Local sea level trends, accelerations and uncertainties over 1993-2019. Scientific Data, 8(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41597-020-00786-7
  • Ablain M, Meyssignac B, Zawadzki L, Jugier R, Ribes A, Spada G, Benveniste J, Cazenave A, Picot N (2019). Uncertainty in satellite estimates of global mean sea-level changes, trend and acceleration. Earth System Science Data, 11: 1189–1202. DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-1189-2019
  • Ablain M., R. Jugier, N. Picot., 2018. Estimation of any Altimeter Mean Seal Level Drifts between 1993 and 2017 by Comparison with Tide-gauges Measurements. Presented at International Review Workshop on Satellite Altimetry Cal/Val Activities and Applications 2018.
  • Ablain, M. et al., 2017. Validation of altimeter data by comparison with tide gauges measurements and with in-situ T/S ARGO profiles (SALP annual GMSL report 2017)
  • Ablain, M. et al., 2015. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993–2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project. Ocean Science, 11(1), pp.67–82. [Accessed May 6, 2015].
  • Ablain, M. et al., 2009. A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993-2008. Ocean Science, 5(2), pp.193–201. [Accessed May 6, 2015].
  • Ablain, M., S. Philipps, 2006, Topex/Poseidon 2005 annual validation report, Topex/Poseidon validation activities, 13 years of T/P data (GDR-Ms)
  • Carrère, L. et al. 2016 : FES 2014, a new tidal model - Validation results and perspectives for improvements, Poster Living Planet Symposium
  • Carrère, L. and F. Lyard, 2003: Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing – comparison with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(6), 1275.
  • Cartwright, D. E., R. J. Tayler, 1971, "New computations of the tide-generating potential," Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 23, 45-74.
  • Cartwright, D. E., A. C. Edden, 1973, "Corrected tables of tidal harmonics," Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 33, 253-264.
  • Desai, S., Wahr, J. & Beckley, B., 2015. Revisiting the pole tide for and from satellite altimetry. Journal of Geodesy, 89(12), pp.1233–1243.
  • Fernandes, M.J. et al., 2015. Improved wet path delays for all ESA and reference altimetric missions. Remote Sensing of Environment, 169, pp.50–74.
  • Gaspar, P., and F. Ogor, 1996, Estimation and analysis of the sea state bias of the new ERS-1 and ERS-2 altimetric data, (OPR version 6). Technical Report. IFREMER/CLS Contract n° 96/2.246 002/C. (CLS/DOS/NT/96.041).
  • Labroue S., 2007 : RA2 ocean and MWR measurement long term monitoring, 2007 report for WP3, Task 2 - SSB estimation for RA2 altimeter. Contract 17293/03/I-OL. CLS-DOS-NT-07-198, 53pp. CLS Ramonville St. Agne
  • Labroue, S., P. Gaspar, J. Dorandeu, F. Mertz, OZ. Zanifé, 2006, Overview of the Improvements Made on the Empirical Determination of the Sea State Bias Correction, 15 years of progress in radar altimetry Symposium, Venice, Italy, 2006
  • Mertz F., F. Mercier, S. Labroue, N. Tran, J. Dorandeu, 2005: ERS-2 OPR data quality assessment ; Long-term monitoring - particular investigation. CLS.DOS.NT-06.001
  • Nencioli, F., Roinard, H., Bignalet-Cazalet F., 2021. Filtering ionospheric correction from altimetry dual-frequencies solution. DOI: 10.24400/527896/a02-2021.001 PDF
  • Ollivier, A., Y. Faugere, M. Ablain, N. Picot, P. Femenias, et J. Benveniste. "Envisat ocean altimeter becoming relevant for mean sea level trend studies." Marine Geodesy, 2012: vol 35.
  • Ray, R., 1999: A Global Ocean Tide model from Topex/Poseidon Altimetry, GOT99.2. Rapport n° NASA/TM-1999-209478, Goddard Space Flight Center Ed., NASA, Greenbelt, MD, USA. pp. 58.
  • Rudenko, S., Otten, M., Visser, P., Scharroo, R., Schoene, T., Esselborn, S., 2012: New improved orbit solutions for the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites. Advances in Space Research, 49, 8, p. 1229-1244, DOI:10.1016/j.asr.2012.01.021,
  • Schaeffer, P., Pujol, M.-I., Faugere, Y., Picot, N., Guillot, A. 2016: New Mean Sea Surface CNES_CLS 2015 focusing on the use of geodetic missions of CryoSat-2 and Jason-1. Living Planet Symposium
  • Scharroo, R. and W.H.F. Smith, 2010 : A global positioning system-based climatology for the total electron content in the ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 115, issue A10. DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014719
  • Scharroo, R., Lillibridge, J., 2005: Non-parametric sea-state bias models and their relevance to sea level change studies, in Proceedings of the 2004 Envisat and ERS Symposium, Eur.Space Agency Spec. Publ., ESA SP-572, edited by H.Lacoste and L. Ouwehand.
  • Scharroo, R., J. Lillibridge, and W.H.F. Smith, 2004: Cross-calibration and long-term monitoring of the Microwave Radiometers of ERS, Topex, GFO, Jason-1 and Envisat. Marine Geodesy, 97.
  • Thibaut P., Piras F., Roinard H., Guerou A., Boy F., Maraldi C., Bignalet-Cazalet F., Dibarboure G., Picot N., 2021: Benefits Of The “Adaptive Retracking Solution” For The Jason-3 Gdr-F Reprocessing Campaign, pdf
  • Tran, N., S. et al., 2014: SSB model for Saral AltiKa. Report CLS-DOS-NT-13-239.
  • Tran, N., S. Philipps, J-C. Poisson, S. Urien, E. Bronner, et N. Picot. "Oral : Impact of GDR-D standards on SSB corrections.", pdf,  Aviso. 28 Septembre 2012.
  • Tran, N., S. Labroue, S. Philipps, E. Bronner, and N. Picot, 2010 : Overview and Update of the Sea State Bias Corrections for the Jason-2, Jason-1 and TOPEX Missions. Marine Geodesy, accepted.
  • USO correction: more information about this Envisat correction is available on
  • Wahr, J. W., 1985, "Deformation of the Earth induced by polar motion," J. Geophys. Res. (Solid Earth), 90, 9363-9368.
  • Watson, C.S. et al., 2015. Unabated global mean sea-level rise over the satellite altimeter era. Nature Clim. Change, 5(6), pp.565–568.
  • Zawadzki, L. et al., Reduction of the 59-day error signal in the Mean Sea Level derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data with the latest FES and GOT ocean tide models.
  • Zawadzki, L. & Ablain, M., 2016. Accuracy of the mean sea level continuous record with future altimetric missions: Jason-3 vs. Sentinel-3a. Ocean Science, 12(1), pp.9–18. [Accessed March 25, 2016]

Other references

  • Satellite oceanic remote sensing, 1985, Adv. Geophys., 27
  • Special Geosat issue: Sea Level frome space, 1990, J. Geophys. Res., 95, C3 and C10
  • Special Topex/Poseidon issue: Scientific results, 1995, J. Geophys. Res., 100, C12
  • Special Topex/Poseidon issue : Geophysical evaluation, 1994, J. Geophys. Res., 99, C12
  • Special issue on Jason-1 Calibration/Validation, part I, Marine Geodesy, 3-4, vol 26, 2003
  • Special issue on Jason-1 Calibration/Validation, part II, Marine Geodesy, 1-2, vol 27, 2004
  • Special issue on Jason-1 Calibration/Validation, part III, Marine Geodesy, 3-4, vol 27, 2004
  • Special Issue on Satellite Altimetry: New Sensors and New Application, Sensors, 6, 2006
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